Characteristics of Water Resources

Water resources are used in a lot of ways include agricultural irrigation, fisheries, hydropower, direct consumption, industrial production, recreation, navigation, environmental protection, the disposal and treatment of sewage, and industrial effluents. Water has sources and supplies, economic, social, and political characteristics which make it a unique and challenging natural resource to manage.

Water resources may also reference the current or potential value of the resource to the community and the environment. The maximum rate that water is potentially available for human use and management is often considered the best measure of the total water resources of a given region. Approximately 30 percent of the world’s fresh water is in liquid form and therefore potentially accessible for human use and management at any given time. The rest is either locked up in polar or glacial ice or water vapor. Of the 30 percent of fresh water in liquid form, almost all is held in groundwaters.

Physical characteristics

Water is a renewable resource since its continued flows are not affected by withdrawals or use. However, not all natural waters are renewable and renewable waters can become non-renewable by human actions such as contamination, watershed modification, or extraction in excess of inflow rate. Water is a vital resource for human and other animal and plant health.

Economic characteristics

Water is used in economic activities and hence must be allocated among competing uses. The commercial needs for water resources complicate matters, since water is a difficult to measure and identify. Water flows, evaporates, seeps and is transpired. This evasive nature entails that exclusive property rights are difficult to establish or enforce. As such it is difficult to subject water to market forces in a market economy. Furthermore water has a long-term value to the sustainability of life and economic activity, over periods that dwarf those considered in conventional cost-benefit analysis. The value of useable water to future generations is hard to quantify and define and requires considerations of quantity, quality, timing, and accessibility. As well, the value of water to particular uses depends crucially on its location, quality, and timing.

The above physical and economic characteristics of water make it a unique resource in which a degree of government involvement is inevitable. The discussion will now turn to the governance structures which have been implemented in order to manage and provide this complicated and vital resource.

Analyzing Resilience of Industrial Ecosystems

Industrial ecosystems improve eco-efficiency at the system level through optimizing material and energy flows, which however raises a concern for system resilience because efficiency, as traditionally conceived, not necessarily promotes resilience.

By drawing on the concept of resilience in ecological systems and in supply chains, resilience in industrial ecosystems is specified on the basis of a system’s ability to maintain eco-efficient material and energy flows under disruptions. Using a network model that captures supply, asset, and organizational dependencies and propagation of disruptions among firms, the resilience, and particularly resistance as an important dimension of resilience, of two real industrial ecosystems and generalized specifications are examined.

The results show that an industrial ecosystem is less resistant and less resilient with high inter-firm dependency, preferentially organized physical exchanges, and under disruptions targeted at highly connected firms. An industrial ecosystem with more firms and exchanges is less resistant, but has more eco-efficient flows and potentials, and therefore is less likely to lose its function of eco-efficiency. Taking these determinants for resilience into consideration improves the adaptability of an industrial ecosystem, which helps increase its resilience.

Effect of Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution is the largest problem to affect directly human today. The environment consists of earth, water, air, plants and animals. If we pollute them, then the existence of man and nature will be hampered.

It is true that trees are being cut down rapidly. Our earth is becoming warmer. If pollution continues, the day is not far when our earth will be a boiling pan and become a desert. Or it will be covered with sea water causing destruction of mankind.

Pure air is always needed for inhaling. If we take pure air, our health improves. On the other hand impure air causes diseases and impairs our health and causes our death. Smoke pollutes the air. It is the root of air pollution. The smoke which is discharged from industries, automobiles and kitchens is the mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane etc. These are all poisonous gases. These cause lung-cancer, tuberculosis etc. which take a heavy toll of life. The glaring incident is the Bhopal gas leak in December 1984. Thousands of the residents of Bhopal died due to lungs problem which was caused by methylamine gas from the Union Carbide Plant.

The garbage emitting foul smell, the decaying plants and animals also cause air pollution. Hence the doctors advise the patients having lungs trouble to settle in some rural places because the air of villages is pure and free from population.

Then comes sound pollution. The harsh sounds of buses, its, mopeds etc. affect our power of hearing and causes fart trouble. It has been reported that there are two villages named Biraspalli and Devadas Palli near Dum Dum airport m Calcutta where a large number of people have lost their power of hearing. This is because of the frequent sounds of planes coming in and going out of Dum Dum Airport. The evils of sound pollution can be imagined from this example.

The water of rivers and seas is being constantly polluted all over the world by various dangerous chemical and biological wastes. Mills and factories discharge very harmful waste waters into many rivers and sea. The water of the Ganges flowing by the side of both Varanashi and Calcutta is extremely polluted and contains all sorts of dangerous bacteria. It is really very strange and laughable that large number of the Indians regard this water as holy. They even drink this water for salvation. There is no doubt that the fish that grow in such waters are poisonous too.

Reckless application of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides pollutes the soil. Vegetables and fruits are quite injurious today, because they contain the poison of insecticides and pesticides.

If the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil which produces our crops, vegetables and fruits, all become more and more impure, then our chances of good health and longevity will be very less and less. Environment pollution is a serious menace to our existence. Realising the danger, we must plant trees in large number to absorb impure air. Impure water from industries can be sent back for purification and then it can be used for irrigation purpose. Our government is well aware of the fact and is taking steps to save environment from pollution. We have also I minister to look after the environment.